English 101


This handout discusses assumptions using a sample article about environmental racism and Hurricane Katrina. (It’s the same article used in the handout on writing a paragraph outline.)


All arguments require assumptions. This handout discusses different types of assumptions and gives examples. But first, a definition:

An assumption is a point that the author doesn’t even try to prove.

Rather than proving the assumption, the author simply assumes it is true.

Remember: An assumption is not a point that the author tries to prove and fails. It’s a point he or she doesn’t even try to prove.

Assumptions and Theses: Comparison and Contrast

Here are two important ways that an assumption is like a thesis:

And here are two ways that an assumption is not like a thesis:


An assumption on which the argument depends is also sometimes called a premise. For example, in the classic syllogism:

All men are mortal;
Socrates is a man;
therefore, Socrates is mortal.

the first two statements are premises. They are assumptions, because no attempt is made to prove them. We just assume they are true. But the third statement depends on them: if they are true, it is true. If either of them were false, the third statement would be either false or unproven.

All arguments—all attempts to prove something—require assumptions. They are not bad; they are, on the contrary, essential. If you tried to prove every point you would never finish, because every proof would depend on another point or points, which would have to be proved, and so on to infinity. So you need assumptions, but you also need to be careful with them. Know what they are, test them to be sure you think they’re valid, and try to use only those that your reader is likely to share.

Think about proving a thesis. One simple procedure for doing so is as follows. We begin with the thesis—the point we want to prove. Then, we list points we would have to prove in order to prove the thesis. Then we list points needed to prove those points. That process could go on forever—but at some point you have to stop. At that point you assume no further proof is needed. The trick is knowing when to stop, which points do not need proof.

Thesis: The overall point the essay is trying to prove.

  1. First main point that you have to prove to prove the thesis
    1. First sub-point to prove the first main point
      • Assumption: At some level you stop proving points. You just assume they’re true.
    2. Second sub-point
      • Assumption
    3. Third sub-point
      • Assumption
  1. Second main point
    1. First sub-point
      • Assumption
    2. Second sub-point
      • Assumption
    3. Third sub-point
      • Assumption
  1. Third main point
    1. First sub-point
      • Assumption
    2. Second sub-point
      • Assumption
    3. Third sub-point
      • Assumption

As you can see, most arguments actually involve many assumptions, at least one for each sub-point.

To keep things simple, I’ll usually refer to “assumptions.” But most of the time, when talking about assumptions I’m talking about the special subset of assumptions called premises—the ones that are needed to prove the thesis.

Types of Assumptions

Assumptions can be either explicit (directly stated) or implicit (not directly stated but implied). When you identify someone’s assumptions, look for both kinds.

An explicit premise in the sample article is the statement that “the stranded were poor, black, disproportionately elderly” (paragraph 5). The author states this but makes no attempt to prove it, probably because she figures it’s obvious: No proof needed.

An implicit premise in the article is the assumption that racism is a bad thing. She never says this, and she certainly never tries to prove it, but it is basic to the point she is trying to make.

Notice that an assumption can be, and often is, perfectly reasonable. Assumptions are not necessarily errors—they are an indispensable part of any argument, the bedrock on which it rests.

Some assumptions deal with facts, like the statement “all men are mortal.” An example of a factual assumption in the sample article would be the statement about those stranded in New Orleans. Another is the claim that “The ’toxic soup’ that has received much public attention is filled with the effluence from the oil and petrochemical industry” (paragraph 4). Both these assumptions deal with straightforward factual information that can be measured or observed directly.

Other assumptions are analytical. They are based on facts, but they go a step further in making some sort of statement about those facts—interpreting them, analyzing them, explaining them, judging or ranking or weighing them. An example of an analytical assumption in the sample would be that “larger systemic problems ... , such as the exclusion of voices and perspectives of racial minorities and working-class populations from environmental policy-making,” caused environmental racism (paragraph 5). This assumption goes beyond measurable or observable data to examine meanings and relationships. As such, it is always more open to debate than factual assumptions which—at least in theory—can be proved or disproved by direct observation.

Still other assumptions deal with values. Unlike factual and analytical assumptions, which can be defended with evidence and reason, it is almost impossible to prove values. Either you share them or you don’t. One of the sample article’s implicit assumptions about values is that poor people and people of color should not experience unfair impacts simply because of their socio-economic status. This assumption depends on ideas about what is “fair” that are very difficult, if not impossible, to defend with evidence and reason. This does not mean they are wrong, just that you are unlikely to convince anyone of them through logical argument.

The assumptions you identify in the assigned reading can be explicit or implicit, and they can be factual, analytical or relating to values.

Identifying, Evaluating and Revising Your Own Assumptions

Like the articles you read and analyze, any argument you make will also contain assumptions. Often we are not aware of the assumptions we make, and sometimes we make bad assumptions without realizing it. One important part of persuasive writing is to examine your own assumptions to make sure that they are valid and consistent with the argument, and to revise those that are mistaken.

You can analyze your own assumptions in the same way that you analyze others’. After writing a draft of your argument, go through the main points and try to spot the claims you make, or those you imply, that you do not try to prove. Make a list of the most important ones.

Once you have identified your assumptions you will want some strategies for dealing with them. Revising Assumptions discusses four things you can do with your own assumptions.