Exam 1

Exam 2

Exam 3

Chapter 46: Electrical signals
Chapter 47: Sensory systems
Chapter 48: Movement
Chapter 49: Chemical signals

Chapter 50: Animal reproduction

Chapter 22

Chapter 23

Chapter 26

Chapter 27

Chapter 28

Chapter 33

Chapter 34

Chapter 35

Chapter 42

Chapter 43

Part I

  • Describe the processes of diffusion and osmosis and predict the direction of water or solute movement in specific examples involving solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes (fig. 43.1)
  • Differentiate among passive transport, primary active transport, and secondary active transport (fig. 43.5)
  • Identify the osmoregulatory challenges marine, freshwater, and terrestrial animals face (figs. 43.2, 43.3, 43.4)
  • Define "osmoregulator" and "osmoconformer"
  • Diagram the structure of epithelia involved in osmoregulation; predict the result of exposure of epithelia to solutions of varying composition and osmolarity (figs. 43.6, 43.7, 43.9, 43.13)
  • Compare and contrast the three main types of nitrogenous waste in terms of source, structure, solubility, and toxicity (table 43.1)

Part II

  • Describe the basic structure and function of excretory tubules and offer specific examples. (figs. 43.9, 43.11, nephridial structure)
  • List the four main processes that take place in excretory tubules. Explain how these processes are related to urine formation and use this knowledge to determine how nephrons handle nutrients, electrolytes, and other substances.
  • Describe the structure and function of the terrestrial vertebrate nephron (figs. 43.10, 43.11, 43.12, 43.15, 43.16, table 43.2, figure from lecture. Here are links to interactive renal anatomy and a simplified view of the nephron)
  • Describe the role of ADH in the regulation of kidney function (fig. 43.17, figure from lecture)
  • Explain how adaptations in nephron structure relate to environmental challenges
  • Describe how fish gills operate as both an osmoregulatory and excretory organ (countercurrent flow, photomicrograph of gill lamellae)

Chapter 44

Chapter 45

Part I

  • Define the partial pressure of a gas and calculate it given appropriate data (fig. 45.2)
  • Describe the physical properties that govern the partial pressures of gases in air and in water
  • Summarize Fick's law and predict the effect of changing surface area, partial pressures, and distance on diffusion (fig. 45.3)
  • Describe the four steps involved in gas exchange between the environment and an animal's cells (fig 45.1)
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of gills, tracheal systems, and lungs (figs. 45.4, 45.5, 45.6, 45.8, 45.10, 44.12)
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of bird lungs and mammal lungs. Trace the path of airflow through each system. (fig. 44.12, bird lung tutorial to be compared to mammal lung tutorial)
  • Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane (fig. 45.10, see this tutorial on the structure--click the blue links)

Part II

  • Use the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve to predict hemoglobin saturation under varying oxygen partial pressures. Predict how the curve will differ under various pH conditions, under different temperatures, and in animals from different environments. (figs. 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17).
  • Describe how pH, temperature, and amino acid sequence can affect the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve.
  • List the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the mammal cardiorespiratory system, describe the rationale for their values, and predict how the values would change under different environmental and physiological conditions (e.g. exercise, changes in breathing rate, changes in altitude, and others) (fig. 45.24)
  • Compare and contrast open & closed circulatory systems and identify which organisms have each type of system (fig. 45.19)
  • Describe the structure of the three primary types of blood vessel (fig. 45.20)
  • Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Trace the path of blood flow through each system. (fig. 45.22)

Chapter 46

  • Describe the roles of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons with respect to the basic reflex pathway (fig. 46.1)
  • Diagram the structure of the neuron including the types of ion channels in its plasma membrane and briefly describe the functions of dendrites, cell body, axons, myelin sheath, and nodes of Ranvier (figs. 46.2, 46.9, 46.12, channel distribution)
  • Define the terms resting membrane potential, action potential, and post-synaptic potential
  • Describe how the resting membrane potential is maintained (fig. 46.3, 46.4, box 46.1, Na+/K+ pump, concentration/electrical gradients)
  • Describe how an action potential is generated and propagated (figs. 46.5, 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, action potential figure)
  • Diagram the structure of a synapse and describe the sequence of events in synaptic transmission (fig. 46.12)
  • Differentiate between excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials in terms of the their effect on membrane potential and on the likelihood of action potential generation (fig. 46.13, 46.14 post-synaptic potentials)

Chapter 47

  • List the major functional classes of sensory receptor and identify the stimuli that they detect
  • Cite specific examples of each type of sensory receptor from the animal kingdom
  • Differentiate among transduction, transmission, and integration (transduction figure, fig. 47.1, 47.2)
  • Describe the structures and mechanisms associated with transduction and transmission in the vertebrate auditory system (figs. 47.3, 47.4, 47.5, 47.6, hair cell function, animation of hair cell function)

Chapter 48

  • Compare and contrast skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle in terms of structure, function, and location (table 48.1)
  • Describe the structure of striated muscle to the level of the myofilament arrangement (fig. 48.1, 48.2)
  • Describe the sliding-filament model of sarcomere contraction (fig. 48.2, 48.4, 48.5, animated model of sliding filaments)
  • Describe the mechanism by which electrical excitation of muscle cells is coupled to muscle contraction (fig. 48.6)

Chapter 49

  • Differentiate among autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, neural, neuroendocrine, and pheromone cell-to-cell signals (table 49.1, fig. 49.1)
  • Compare and contrast the nervous system and the endocrine system in terms of speed and specificity of the signal transmitted
  • Compare and contrast amine, peptide, and steroid hormones in terms of their structure, receptor location, receptor function, and speed of action (figs. 49.3, 49.15, 49.18)
  • Describe the general role of negative feedback in the control of hormone secretion and offer one specific example (fig. 49.12, fig. 49.13)
  • Give at least three specific examples of how hormones regulate development, detailing the hormone or hormones involved, the target tissues, and the effects of the hormone on the target tissues

Chapter 50

  • List the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
  • Identify the three modes of asexual reproduction and offer specific examples of each (fig. 50.1)
  • Define the terms hermaphrodite and sequential hermaphrodite and offer examples of each
  • Compare and contrast different modes of sexual reproduction (separate male & female, self-fertilizing & non self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, sex-changing animals)
  • Describe the basic anatomy of sexually reproducing organisms in terms of gonads, ductwork and copulatory organs, and accessory glands and be able to identify specific examples of each of these (figs. 50.11, 50.11, 50.13)
  • Compare and contrast reproductive strategies in male vs. female organisms, and identify examples of sexual conflict as a result of these differing strategies (clownfish, bluehead wrasse, damselfly reproduction, extrapair paternity in blue tits, beetle "torture" phalluses, mallard duck genitalia)